Root canals are dental procedures to treat and save severely damaged or infected teeth. Despite their reputation for being intimidating, understanding the process and knowing what to expect can alleviate anxiety and ensure a smooth experience. This article will guide you through the ins and outs of root canals, from the reasons they are necessary, to the steps involved in the procedure.

Why Are Root Canals Necessary?

Root canals become necessary when the innermost part of a tooth, known as the pulp, becomes inflamed or infected. This can happen due to various reasons, such as deep decay, repeated dental procedures on the same tooth, or trauma to the tooth. The infection can lead to severe pain, abscess formation, and even bone loss around the affected tooth if left untreated.

The primary goal of a root canal is to remove the infected pulp and clean the inside of the tooth, sealing it afterwards to prevent further infection. By doing so, the tooth can be saved, and its function can be restored.

Signs You Might Need a Root Canal

Several symptoms may indicate that you require a root canal. These include:

Persistent Toothache: If you experience ongoing and severe tooth pain, especially when chewing or applying pressure, it might indicate an infected tooth.

Tooth Sensitivity: Increased sensitivity to hot or cold temperatures, even after removing the stimulus, can signal pulp inflammation.

Gum Swelling and Tenderness: Swelling and tenderness in the gums surrounding a specific tooth may indicate an underlying issue.

Discolouration of the Tooth: A tooth that appears darker than the rest may result from pulp damage.

Pimple-like Bump: A minor bump or pimple-like lesion on the gums can form when an infection has developed into an abscess.

If you experience any of these symptoms, scheduling an appointment with your endodontist for a thorough examination is crucial.

The Root Canal Procedure Explained

Step 1: Consultation and Examination

Before the root canal procedure, your endodontist will conduct a comprehensive examination, including X-rays, to assess the extent of the damage and determine if a root canal is necessary. If a root canal is recommended, the dentist will explain the procedure, answer any questions you may have, and schedule the treatment.

Step 2: Anaesthesia

On the day of the procedure, the endodontist will administer a local anaesthetic to numb the area around the affected tooth. This ensures you are comfortable throughout the process and do not experience any pain during the procedure.

Step 3: Accessing the Pulp Chamber

Once the area is numb, the dentist will create a small access hole on the tooth’s surface. This opening allows them to reach the pulp chamber and the  canals.

Step 4: Removing Infected Pulp

The endodontist will use specialised tools to remove the infected or inflamed pulp from the pulp chamber and root canals through the access hole. The canalswill also be cleaned and shaped to prepare them for filling.

Step 5: Filling the Canals

After cleaning, the endodontist will seal the tooth with either a permanent or temporary filling, thereby preventing any future infection. 

Step 6: Restoring the Tooth

In most cases, a tooth that has undergone a root canal will require additional protection. Your endodontist may recommend  your referring dentist to place a dental crown over the treated tooth to provide strength and protection.

How to Prepare for a Root Canal

Preparing for a root canal is relatively straightforward and involves a few essential steps:

Consultation: As soon as you notice any signs , such as persistent pain or sensitivity, gum swelling or spots appearing on the gum, schedule a consultation with your dentist promptly. Early intervention can prevent the problem from worsening.

Share Your Medical History: During the consultation,  it is important to share with your dentist your complete medical history, including any medications or supplements you take. Certain medical conditions and medications may impact the anaesthesia or the root canal procedure.

Ask Questions: Don’t hesitate to ask your dentist any questions or express any concerns you may have about the procedure. Understanding the process and what to expect can help ease anxiety.

Arrange Transportation: While root canals are generally well-tolerated and cause minimal discomfort, arranging transportation to and from the dental clinic is wise. This is especially important if you’re receiving sedation or feeling anxious about driving after the procedure.

Eat Beforehand: Have a light meal before the procedure unless your dentist advises otherwise. This will ensure you aren’t hungry during the appointment, and it will also be helpful if you take any medications requiring food.

Take Prescribed Medications: If your dentist prescribes any medications before or after the procedure, follow their instructions diligently.


Root canals are a crucial dental procedure that can save damaged or infected teeth, relieving pain and preventing further complications. Understanding the process and recognising the signs that indicate you may need a root canal can help you take prompt action, ensuring a successful outcome. Remember to maintain regular dental check-ups and practice good oral hygiene to reduce the risk of dental issues requiring root canals. By staying proactive about your oral health, you can minimise the likelihood of needing such interventions in the future.